Metarget - Framework Providing Automatic Constructions Of Vulnerable Infrastructures


1 Introduction

Metarget = meta- + target, a framework providing automatic constructions of vulnerable infrastructures, used to deploy simple or complicated vulnerable cloud native targets swiftly and automatically.


1.1 Why Metarget?

During security researches, we might find that the deployment of vulnerable environment often takes much time, while the time spent on testing PoC or ExP is comparatively short. In the field of cloud native security, thanks to the complexity of cloud native systems, this issue is more terrible.

There are already some excellent security projects like Vulhub, VulApps in the open-source community, which pack vulnerable scenes into container images, so that researchers could utilize them and deploy scenes quickly.

However, these projects mainly focus on vulnerabilities in applications. What if we need to study the vulnerabilities in the infrastructures like Docker, Kubernetes and even Linux kernel?

Hence, we develop Metarget and hope to solve the deployment issue above to some extent. Furthermore, we also expect that Metarget could help to construct multilayer vulnerable cloud native scenes automatically.


1.2 Install Vulnerability!

In this project, we come up with concepts like installing vulnerabilities and installing vulnerable scenes. Why not install vulnerabilities just like installing softwares? We can do that, because our goals are security research and offensive security.

To be exact, we expect that:

  • metarget cnv install cve-2019-5736 will install Docker with CVE-2019-5736 onto the server.
  • metarget cnv install cve-2018-1002105 will install Kubernetes with CVE-2018-1002105 onto the server.
  • metarget cnv install kata-escape-2020 will install Kata-containers with CVE-2020-2023/2025/2026 onto the server.
  • metarget cnv install cve-2016-5195 will install a kernel with DirtyCoW into the server.

It's cool, right? No more steps. No RTFM. Execute one command and enjoy your coffee.

Furthermore, we expect that:

  • with Metarget's help, ethical hackers are able to deploy simple or complicated cloud native targets swiftly and learn by hacking cloud native environments.
  • metarget appv install dvwa will install a DVWA target onto our vulnerable infrastructure.
  • metarget appv install thinkphp-5-0-23-rce --external will install a ThinkPHP RCE vulnerability with NodePort service onto our vulnerable infrastructure.

You can just run 5 commands below after installing a new Ubuntu and obtain a multi-layer vulnerable scene:

./metarget cnv install cve-2016-5195 # container escape with dirtyCoW./metarget cnv install cve-2019-5736 # container escape with docker./metarget cnv install cve-2018-1002105 # kubernetes single-node cluster with cve-2018-1002105./metarget cnv install privileged-container # deploy a privileged container./metarget appv install dvwa --external # deploy dvwa target

RCE, container escape, lateral movement, persistence, they are yours now.

More awesome functions are coming! Stay tuned :)

Note:

Thie project aims to provide vulnerable scenes for security research. The security of scenes generated is not guaranteed. It is NOT recommended to deploy components or scenes with Metarget on the Internet.


2 Usage

2.1 Basic Usage
usage: metarget [-h] [-v] subcommand ...automatic constructions of vulnerable infrastructurespositional arguments:  subcommand     description    gadget       cloud native gadgets (docker/k8s/...) management    cnv          cloud native vulnerabilities management    appv         application vulnerabilities managementoptional arguments:  -h, --help     show this help message and exit  -v, --version  show program's version number and exit

Run ./metarget gadget list to see cloud native components supported currently.


2.2 Manage Cloud Native Components
usage: metarget gadget [-h] subcommand ...positional arguments:  subcommand  description    list      list supported gadgets    install   install gadgets    remove    uninstall gadgetsoptional arguments:  -h, --help  show this help message and exit

2.2.1 Case: Install Docker with Specified Version

Run:

./metarget gadget install docker --version 18.03.1

If the command above completes successfully, 18.03.1 Docker will be installed.


2.2.2 Case: Install Kubernetes with Specified Version

Run:

./metarget gadget install k8s --version 1.16.5

If the command above completes successfully, 1.16.5 Kubernetes single-node cluster will be installed.

Note:

Usually, lots of options need to be configured in Kubernetes. As a security research project, Metarget provides some options for installation of Kubernetes:

  -v VERSION, --version VERSION                        gadget version  --cni-plugin CNI_PLUGIN                        cni plugin, flannel by default  --pod-network-cidr POD_NETWORK_CIDR                        pod network cidr, default cidr for each plugin by                        default  --taint-master        taint master node or not

Metarget supports deployment of multi-node cluster. If you want to add more nodes into the cluster, you can copy tools/install_k8s_worker.sh script and run it on each worker nodes after the successful installation of single-node cluster.


2.2.3 Case: Install Kata-containers with Specified Version

Run:

./metarget gadget install kata --version 1.10.0

If the command above completes successfully, 1.10.0 Kata-containers will be installed.

Note:

You can also specify the type of kata runtime (qemu/clh/fc/...) with --kata-runtime-type option, which is qemu by default.


2.2.4 Case: Install Linux Kernel with Specified Version

Run:

./metarget gadget install kernel --version 5.7.5

If the command above completes successfully, 5.7.5 kernel will be installed.

Note:

Currently, Metarget install kernels in 2 ways:

  1. apt
  2. if apt package is not available, download *.deb remotely from Ubuntu and try to install

After successful installation of kernel, reboot of system is needed. Metarget will prompt to reboot automatically.


2.3 Manage Vulnerable Scenes Related to Cloud Native Components
usage: metarget cnv [-h] subcommand ...positional arguments:  subcommand  description    list      list supported cloud native vulnerabilities    install   install cloud native vulnerabilities    remove    uninstall cloud native vulnerabilitiesoptional arguments:  -h, --help  show this help message and exit

Run ./metarget cnv list to see vulnerable scenes related to cloud native components supported currently.


2.3.1 Case: CVE-2019-5736

Run:

./metarget cnv install cve-2019-5736

If the command above completes successfully, Docker with CVE-2019-5736 will be installed。


2.3.2 Case: CVE-2018-1002105

Run:

./metarget cnv install cve-2018-1002105

If the command above completes successfully, Kubernetes with CVE-2018-1002105 will be installed。


2.3.3 Case: Kata-containers Escape

Run:

./metarget cnv install kata-escape-2020

If the command above completes successfully, Kata-containers with CVE-2020-2023/2025/2026 will be installed。


2.3.4 Case: CVE-2016-5195

Run:

./metarget cnv install cve-2016-5195

If the command above completes successfully, kernel with CVE-2016-5195 will be installed。


2.4 Manage Vulnerable Scenes Related to Cloud Native Applications
usage: metarget appv [-h] subcommand ...positional arguments:  subcommand  description    list      list supported application vulnerabilities    install   install application vulnerabilities    remove    uninstall application vulnerabilitiesoptional arguments:  -h, --help  show this help message and exit

Run ./metarget appv list to see vulnerable scenes related to cloud native applications supported currently.

Note:

Before deploying application vulnerable scenes, you should install Docker and Kubernetes firstly. You can use Metarget to install Docker and Kubernetes.


2.4.1 Case: DVWA

Run:

./metarget appv install dvwa

If the command above completes successfully, DVWA will be deployed as Deployment and Service resources in current Kubernetes.

Note:

You can specify --external option, then the service will be exposed as NodePort, so that you can visit it by IP of the host node.

By default, the type of service is ClusterIP.


2.5 Manage Vulnerable Cloud Native Target Cluster

Developing, currently not supported.


3 Installation

3.1 Requirements
  • Ubuntu 16.04 or 18.04
  • Python >= 3.5
  • pip3

3.2 From Source

Clone the repository and install requirements:

git clone https://github.com/brant-ruan/metarget.gitcd metarget/pip install -r requirements.txt

Begin to use Metarget and construct vulnerable scenes. For example:

./metarget cnv install cve-2019-5736

3.3 From PyPI

Currently unsupported.


4 Scene List

4.1 Vulnerable Scenes Related to Cloud Native Components
Name Class Type CVSS 3.x Status
cve-2018-15664 docker container_escape 7.5
cve-2019-13139 docker command_execution 8.4
cve-2019-14271 docker container_escape 9.8
cve-2020-15257 docker/containerd container_escape 5.2
cve-2019-5736 docker/runc container_escape 8.6
cve-2017-1002101 kubernetes container_escape 9.6
cve-2018-1002105 kubernetes privilege_escalation 9.8
cve-2019-11253 kubernetes denial_of_service 7.5
cve-2019-9512 kubernetes denial_of_service 7.5
cve-2019-9514 kubernetes denial_of_service 7.5
cve-2020-8554 kubernetes man_in_the_middle 5.0
cve-2020-8557 kubernetes denial_of_service 5.5
cve-2020-8558 kubernetes exposure_of_service 8.8
cve-2016-5195 kernel container_escape 7.8
cve-2018-18955 kernel privilege_escalation 7.0
cve-2020-14386 kernel container_escape 7.8
cap_dac_read_search-container config container_escape -
cap_sys_admin-container config container_escape -
cap_sys_ptrace-container config container_escape -
privileged-container config container_escape -
mount-docker-sock mount container_escape -
mount-host-etc mount container_escape -
mount-host-procfs mount container_escape -
kata-escape-2020 kata-containers container_escape 6.3/8.8/8.8

4.2 Vulnerable Scenes Related to Cloud Native Applications

These scenes are mainly derived from other open-source projects:

We express sincere gratitude to projects above!

Metarget converts scenes in projects above to Deployments and Services resources in Kubernetes (thanks to kompose).

To list vulnerable scenes related to cloud native applications supported by Metarget, just run:

./metarget appv list

5 DEMO


6 Development Plan
  • deployments of basic cloud native components (docker, k8s)
  • integrations of vulnerable scenes related to cloud native components
  • integrations of RCE scenes in containers
  • automatic construction of multi-node cloud native target cluster
  • integrations of other cloud native vulnerable scenes (long term)

7 Maintainers

8 About Logo

It is not a Kubernetes, but a vulnerable infrastructure with three gears which could not work well (vulnerable) :)




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